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    Panama Geography 2000

      Location: Middle America, bordering both the Caribbean Sea and the North Pacific Ocean, between Colombia and Costa Rica

      Geographic coordinates: 9 00 N, 80 00 W

      Map references: Central America and the Caribbean

      total: 78,200 sq km
      land: 75,990 sq km
      water: 2,210 sq km

      Area - comparative: slightly smaller than South Carolina

      Land boundaries:
      total: 555 km
      border countries: Colombia 225 km, Costa Rica 330 km

      Coastline: 2,490 km

      Maritime claims:
      contiguous zone: 24 nm
      exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
      territorial sea: 12 nm

      Climate: tropical maritime; hot, humid, cloudy; prolonged rainy season (May to January), short dry season (January to May)

      Terrain: interior mostly steep, rugged mountains and dissected, upland plains; coastal areas largely plains and rolling hills

      Elevation extremes:
      lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m
      highest point: Volcan de Chiriqui 3,475 m

      Natural resources: copper, mahogany forests, shrimp, hydropower

      Land use:
      arable land: 7%
      permanent crops: 2%
      permanent pastures: 20%
      forests and woodland: 44%
      other: 27% (1993 est.)

      Irrigated land: 320 sq km (1993 est.)

      Natural hazards: NA

      Environment - current issues: water pollution from agricultural runoff threatens fishery resources; deforestation of tropical rain forest; land degradation and soil erosion threatens siltation of Panama Canal

      Environment - international agreements:
      party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling
      signed, but not ratified: Marine Life Conservation

      Geography - note: strategic location on eastern end of isthmus forming land bridge connecting North and South America; controls Panama Canal that links North Atlantic Ocean via Caribbean Sea with North Pacific Ocean

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    Revised 01-Nov-00
    Copyright © 2000 Photius Coutsoukis (all rights reserved)