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    Tonga Geography 1997

      Location Oceania, archipelago in the South Pacific Ocean, about two-thirds ofthe way from Hawaii to New Zealand

      Geographic coordinates 20 00 S, 175 00 W

      Map references Oceania

      total: 748 sq km
      land: 718 sq km
      water: 30 sq km

      Area - comparative four times the size of Washington, DC

      Land boundaries 0 km

      Coastline 419 km

      Maritime claims
      continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation
      exclusive economic zone : 200 nm
      territorial sea: 12 nm

      Climate tropical; modified by trade winds; warm season (December to May), coolseason (May to December)

      Terrain most islands have limestone base formed from uplifted coral formation;others have limestone overlying volcanic base

      Elevation extremes
      lowest point : Pacific Ocean 0 m
      highest point: unnamed location on Kao Island 1,033 m

      Natural resources fish, fertile soil

      Land use
      arable land: 24%
      permanent crops: 43%
      permanent pastures: 6%
      forests and woodland: 11%
      other : 16% (1993 est.)

      Irrigated land NA sq km

      Natural hazards cyclones (October to April); earthquakes and volcanic activity on Fonuafo'ou

      Environment - current issues deforestation results as more and more land is being cleared for agricultureand settlement; some damage to coral reefs from starfish and indiscriminatecoral and shell collectors; overhunting threatens native sea turtle populations

      Environment - international agreements
      party to: Law of the Sea, Marine Life Conservation, Nuclear Test Ban, Ship Pollution,Whaling
      signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

      Geography - note archipelago of 170 islands (36 inhabited)

      NOTE: The information regarding Tonga on this page is re-published from the 1997 World Fact Book of the United States Central Intelligence Agency. No claims are made regarding the accuracy of Tonga Geography 1997 information contained here. All suggestions for corrections of any errors about Tonga Geography 1997 should be addressed to the CIA.

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    Revised 06-Mar-02
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