Balancing item: Represents differences between the sum of the components of natural gas supply and the sum of the components of natural gas disposition. These differences may be due to quantities lost or to the effects of data reporting problems. Reporting problems include differences due to the net result of conversions of flow data metered at varying temperature and pressure bases and converted to a standard temperature and pressure base; the effect of variations in company accounting and billing practices; differences between billing cycle and calendar period time frames; and imbalances resulting from the merger of data reporting systems that vary in scope, format, definitions, and type of respondents.
Barrels per Calendar day: The amount of input that a distillation facility can process under usual operating conditions. The amount is expressed in terms of capacity during a 24-hour period and reduces the maximum processing capability of all units at the facility under continuous operation (see Barrels per Stream Day below) to account for the following limitations that may delay, interrupt, or slow down production.
Barrels per Stream day: The maximum number of barrels of input that a distillation facility can process within a 24-hour period when running at full capacity under optimal crude and product slate conditions with no allowance for downtime.
Base (cushion) gas: The volume of gas needed as a permanent inventory to maintain adequate reservoir pressures and deliverability rates throughout the withdrawal season. All native gas is included in the base gas volume.
Base load plant: A plant, usually housing high-efficiency steam-electric units, which is normally operated to take all or part of the minimum load of a system, and which consequently produces electricity at an essentially constant rate and runs continuously. These units are operated to maximize system mechanical and thermal efficiency and minimize system operating costs.
Base period: The period of time for which data used as the base of an index number, or other ratio, have been collected. This period is frequently one of a year but it may be as short as one day or as long as the average of a group of years. The length of the base period is governed by the nature of the material under review, the purpose for which the index number (or ratio) is being compiled, and the desire to use a period as free as possible from abnormal influences in order to avoid bias.
Baseboard heater: As a type of heating equipment, a system in which either electric resistance coils or finned tubes carrying steam or hot water are mounted behind shallow panels along baseboards. Baseboards rely on passive convection to distribute heated air in the space. Electric baseboards are an example of an "Individual Space Heater." (Also see Individual Space Heater.)
Benzene (C6H6): An aromatic hydrocarbon present in small proportion in some crude oils and made commercially from petroleum by the catalytic reforming of naphthenes in petroleum naphtha. Also made from coal in the manufacture of coke. Used as a solvent in the manufacture of detergents, synthetic fibers, petrochemicals, and as a component of high-octane gasoline.
Billing period: The time between meter readings. It does not refer to the time when the bill was sent or when the payment was to have been received. In some cases, the billing period is the same as the billing cycle that corresponds closely (within several days) to meter-reading dates. For fuel oil and LPG, the billing period is the number of days between fuel deliveries.
Biodiesel: Any liquid biofuel suitable as a diesel fuel substitute or diesel fuel additive or extender. Biodiesel fuels are typically made from oils such as soybeans, rapeseed, or sunflowers, or from animal tallow. Biodiesel can also be made from hydrocarbons derived from agricultural products such as rice hulls.
Bitumen: A naturally occurring viscous mixture, mainly of hydrocarbons heavier than pentane, that may contain sulphur compounds and that, in its natural occurring viscous state, is not recoverable at a commercial rate through a well.
Bituminous coal: A dense coal, usually black, sometimes dark brown, often with well-defined bands of bright and dull material, used primarily as fuel in steam-electric power generation, with substantial quantities also used for heat and power applications in manufacturing and to make coke. Bituminous coal is the most abundant coal in active U.S. mining regions. Its moisture content usually is less than 20 percent. The heat content of bituminous coal ranges from 21 to 30 million Btu per ton on a moist, mineral-matter-free basis. The heat content of bituminous coal consumed in the United States averages 24 million Btu per ton, on the as-received basis (i.e., containing both inherent moisture and mineral matter).
Black liquor: A byproduct of the paper production process, alkaline spent liquor, that can be used as a source of energy. Alkaline spent liquor is removed from the digesters in the process of chemically pulping wood. After evaporation, the residual "black" liquor is burned as a fuel in a recovery furnace that permits the recovery of certain basic chemicals.
Blending components: See Motor gasoline blending components.
Block-rate structure: An electric rate schedule with a provision for charging a different unit cost for various increasing blocks of demand for energy. A reduced rate may be charged on succeeding blocks.
Boiler: A device for generating steam for power, processing, or heating purposes; or hot water for heating purposes or hot water supply. Heat from an external combustion source is transmitted to a fluid contained within the tubes found in the boiler shell. This fluid is delivered to an end-use at a desired pressure, temperature, and quality.
Boiler fuel: An energy source to produce heat that is transferred to the boiler vessel in order to generate steam or hot water. Fossil fuel is the primary energy source used to produce heat for boilers.
Bonded petroleum imports: Petroleum imported and entered into Customs bonded storage. These imports are not included in the import statistics until they are: (1) withdrawn from storage free of duty for use as fuel for vessels and aircraft engaged in international trade; or (2) withdrawn from storage with duty paid for domestic use.
Book value: The portion of the carrying value (other than the portion associated with tangible assets) prorated in each accounting period, for financial reporting purposes, to the extracted portion of an economic interest in a wasting natural resource.
Booked costs: Costs allocated or assigned to inter-departmental or intracompany transactions, such as on-system or synthetic natural gas (SNG) production and company-owned gas used in gas operations and recorded in company books or records for accounting and/or regulatory purposes.
Bottled gas: See Liquefied petroleum gases.
Bottled gas, LPG, or propane: Any fuel gas supplied to a building in liquid form, such as liquefied petroleum gas, propane, or butane. It is usually delivered by tank truck and stored near the building in a tank or cylinder until used.
Bottom-hole contribution: A payment (either in cash or in acreage) that is required by agreement when a test well is drilled to a specified depth regardless of the outcome of the well and that is made in exchange for well and evaluation data.
Branded product: A refined petroleum product sold by a refiner with the understanding that the purchaser has the right to resell the product under a trademark, trade name, service mark, or other identifying symbol or names owned by such refiner.
Breeder reactor: A reactor that both produces and consumes fissionable fuel, especially one that creates more fuel than it consumes. The new fissionable material is created by a process known as breeding, in which neutrons from fission are captured in fertile materials.
British thermal unit: The quantity of heat required to raise the temperature of 1 pound of liquid water by 1 degree Fahrenheit at the temperature at which water has its greatest density (approximately 39 degrees Fahrenheit).
Btu conversion factors: Btu conversion factors for site energy are as follows:
Btu per cubic foot: The total heating value, expressed in Btu, produced by the combustion, at constant pressure, of the amount of the gas that would occupy a volume of 1 cubic foot at a temperature of 60 degrees F if saturated with water vapor and under a pressure equivalent to that of 30 inches of mercury at 32 degrees F and under standard gravitational force (980.665 cm. per sec. squared) with air of the same temperature and pressure as the gas, when the products of combustion are cooled to the initial temperature of gas and air when the water formed by combustion is condensed to the liquid state. (Sometimes called gross heating value or total heating value.)
Building shell conservation feature: A building feature designed to reduce energy loss or gain through the shell or envelope of the building. Data collected by EIA on the following specific building shell energy conservation features: roof, ceiling, or wall insulation; storm windows or double- or triple-paned glass (multiple glazing); tinted or reflective glass or shading films; exterior or interior shadings or awnings; and weather stripping or caulking. (See Roof or Ceiling Insulation, Wall Insulation, Reflective or Shading Glass or Film, Storm Windows or Triple-Paned Glass, Building Shell (Envelope), Exterior or Interior Shadings or Awnings, and Weather Stripping or Caulking.)
Building shell (envelope) DSM program: A DSM program that promotes reduction of energy consumption through improvements to the building envelope. Includes installations of insulation, weatherstripping, caulking, window film, and window replacement. (Also see DSM, Demand-Side Management Programs.)
Built-in electric units: An individual-resistance electric-heating unit that is permanently installed in the floors, walls, ceilings, or baseboards and is part of the electrical installation of the building. Electric-heating devices that are plugged into an electric socket or outlet are not considered built in. (Also see Heating Equipment.)
Bulk power transactions: The wholesale sale, purchase, and interchange of electricity among electric utilities. Bulk power transactions are used by electric utilities for many different aspects of electric utility operations, from maintaining load to reducing costs.
Bulk station: A facility used primarily for the storage and/or marketing of petroleum products, which has a total bulk storage capacity of less than 50,000 barrels and receives its petroleum products by tank car or truck.
Bulk terminal: A facility used primarily for the storage and/or marketing of petroleum products, which has a total bulk storage capacity of 50,000 barrels or more and/or receives petroleum products by tanker, barge, or pipeline.
Bunker fuels: Fuel supplied to ships and aircraft, both domestic and foreign, consisting primarily of residual and distillate fuel oil for ships and kerosene-based jet fuel for aircraft. The term "international bunker fuels" is used to denote the consumption of fuel for international transport activities. Note: For the purposes of greenhouse gas emissions inventories, data on emissions from combustion of international bunker fuels are subtracted from national emissions totals. Historically, bunker fuels have meant only ship fuel.
Butane (C4H10): A normally gaseous straight-chain or branch-chain hydrocarbon extracted from hydrocarbon extracted from natural gas or refinery gas streams. It includes isobutane and normal butane and is designated in ASTM Specification D1835 and Gas Processors Association Specifications for commercial butane.
Buy-back oil: Crude oil acquired from a host government whereby a portion of the government's ownership interest in the crude oil produced in that country may or should be purchased by the producing firm.
Byproduct: A secondary or additional product resulting from the feedstock use of energy or the processing of nonenergy materials. For example, the more common byproducts of coke ovens are coal gas, tar, and a mixture of benzene, toluene, and xylenes (BTX).
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