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    Romania Government 2000

      Country name:
      conventional long form: none
      conventional short form: Romania
      local long form: none
      local short form: Romania

      Data code: RO

      Government type: republic

      Capital: Bucharest

      Administrative divisions: 40 counties (judete, singular - judet) and 1 municipality* (municipiu); Alba, Arad, Arges, Bacau, Bihor, Bistrita-Nasaud, Botosani, Braila, Brasov, Bucuresti*, Buzau, Calarasi, Caras-Severin, Cluj, Constanta, Covasna, Dimbovita, Dolj, Galati, Gorj, Giurgiu, Harghita, Hunedoara, Ialomita, Iasi, Maramures, Mehedinti, Mures, Neamt, Olt, Prahova, Salaj, Satu Mare, Sibiu, Suceava, Teleorman, Timis, Tulcea, Vaslui, Vilcea, Vrancea

      Independence: 1881 (from Turkey; republic proclaimed 30 December 1947)

      National holiday: National Day of Romania, 1 December (1990)

      Constitution: 8 December 1991

      Legal system: former mixture of civil law system and communist legal theory; is now based on the constitution of France's Fifth Republic

      Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

      Executive branch:
      chief of state: President Emil CONSTANTINESCU (since 29 November 1996)
      head of government: Prime Minister Mugur ISARESCU (since 22 December 1998)
      cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the prime minister
      elections: president elected by popular vote for a four-year term; election last held 3 November 1996, with runoff between the top two candidates held 17 November 1996 (next to be held NA November/December 2000); prime minister appointed by the president
      election results: percent of vote - Emil CONSTANTINESCU 54.4%, Ion ILIESCU 45.6%

      Legislative branch: bicameral Parliament or Parlament consists of the Senate or Senat (143 seats; members are elected by direct popular vote on a proportional representation basis to serve four-year terms) and the Chamber of Deputies or Adunarea Deputatilor (343 seats; members are elected by direct popular vote on a proportional representation basis to serve four-year terms)
      elections: Senate - last held 3 November 1996 (next to be held fall 2000); Chamber of Deputies - last held 3 November 1996 (next to be held fall 2000)
      election results: Senate - percent of vote by party - CDR 30.7%, PDSR 23.1%, USD 13.2%, UDMR 6.8%, PRM 4.5%, PUNR 4.2%, others 17.5%; seats by party - CDR 53, PDSR 41, USD 23, UDMR 11, PRM 8, PUNR 7; Chamber of Deputies - percent of vote by party - CDR 30.2%, PDSR 21.5%, USD 12.9%, UDMR 6.6% PRM 4.5%, PUNR 4.4%, others 19.9%; seats by party - CDR 122, PDSR 91, USD 53, UDMR 25, PRM 19, PUNR 18, ethnic minorities 15

      Judicial branch: Supreme Court of Justice, judges are appointed by the president on the recommendation of the Superior Council of Magistrates

      Political parties and leaders: Agrarian Democratic Party of Romania or PDAR [Mihai BERCA]; Alliance Party for Romania or APR [Tedor MELESCANU]; Civic Alliance Party or PAC [Nicolae MANOLESCU, chairman]; Democratic Party or PD [Petre ROMAN]; Democratic Union of Hungarians in Romania or UDMR [Bela MARKO]; Liberal Party '93 or PL-93 [Dinu PATRICIU]; National Liberal Party or PNL [Mircea IONESCU-QUINTUS]; National Liberal Party-Democratic Convention or PNL-CD [Nicolae CERVENI]; National Peasants' Christian and Democratic Party or PNTCD [Ion DIACONESCU]; Party of Social Democracy in Romania or PDSR [Ion ILIESCU]; Romania Mare Party (Greater Romanian Party) or PRM [Corneliu Vadim TUDOR]; Romanian National Unity Party or PUNR [Valeriu TABARA]; Romanian Social Democratic Party or PSDR [Alexamdru ATHANASIU]; Socialist Labor Party or PSM [Ilie VERDET]; Socialist Party or PS [Tudor MOHORA]; The Democratic Convention or CDR [Ion DIACONESCU]
      note: to increase their voting strength several of the above-mentioned parties united under umbrella organizations: PNTCD, PNL, and PNL-CD form the bulk of the Democratic Convention or CDR [Ion DIACONESCU]; PD and PSDR form the Union of Social Democrats or USD [Petre ROMAN]; and PAC and PL-93 form the National Liberal Alliance or ANL [Nicolae MANOLESCU]; PSM, PS, ANL, and numerous other small parties failed to gain representation in the most recent election

      Political pressure groups and leaders: various human rights and professional associations

      International organization participation: ACCT, BIS, BSEC, CCC, CE, CEI, EAPC, EBRD, ECE, EU (applicant), FAO, G- 9, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, LAIA (observer), MONUC, NAM (guest), NSG, OAS (observer), OPCW, OSCE, PCA, PFP, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNIKOM, UNMIBH, UNMIK, UPU, WCL, WEU (associate partner), WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO, ZC

      Diplomatic representation in the US:
      chief of mission: Ambassador Mircea Dan GEOANA
      chancery: 1607 23rd Street NW, Washington, DC 20008
      telephone: [1] (202) 332-4846, 4848, 4851
      FAX: [1] (202) 232-4748
      consulate(s) general: Los Angeles and New York

      Diplomatic representation from the US:
      chief of mission: Ambassador James C. ROSAPEPE
      embassy: Strada Tudor Arghezi 7-9, Bucharest
      mailing address: American Embassy Bucharest, Department of State, Washington, DC 20521-5260 (pouch)
      telephone: [40] (1) 210 01 49, 210 40 42
      FAX: [40] (1) 210 03 95
      branch office: Cluj-Napoca

      Flag description: three equal vertical bands of blue (hoist side), yellow, and red; the national coat of arms that used to be centered in the yellow band has been removed; now similar to the flag of Chad, also resembles the flags of Andorra and Moldova

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