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Romania Government

    Country name:
    conventional long form: none
    conventional short form: Romania
    local long form: none
    local short form: Romania

    Data code: RO

    Government type: republic

    Capital: Bucharest

    Administrative divisions: 40 counties (judete, singular—judet) and 1 municipality* (municipiu); Alba, Arad, Arges, Bacau, Bihor, Bistrita-Nasaud, Botosani, Braila, Brasov, Bucuresti*, Buzau, Calarasi, Caras-Severin, Cluj, Constanta, Covasna, Dimbovita, Dolj, Galati, Gorj, Giurgiu, Harghita, Hunedoara, Ialomita, Iasi, Maramures, Mehedinti, Mures, Neamt, Olt, Prahova, Salaj, Satu Mare, Sibiu, Suceava, Teleorman, Timis, Tulcea, Vaslui, Vilcea, Vrancea

    Independence: 1881 (from Turkey; republic proclaimed 30 December 1947)

    National holiday: National Day of Romania, 1 December (1990)

    Constitution: 8 December 1991

    Legal system: former mixture of civil law system and communist legal theory; is now based on the constitution of France's Fifth Republic

    Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

    Executive branch:
    chief of state: President Emil CONSTANTINESCU (since 29 November 1996)
    head of government: Prime Minister Radu VASILE (since 17 April 1998)
    cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the prime minister
    elections: president elected by popular vote for a four-year term; election last held 3 November 1996, with runoff between the top two candidates held 17 November 1996 (next to be held NA November/December 2000); prime minister appointed by the president
    election results: percent of vote—Emil CONSTANTINESCU 54.4%, Ion ILIESCU 45.6%

    Legislative branch: bicameral Parliament or Parlament consists of the Senate or Senat (143 seats; members are elected by direct popular vote on a proportional representation basis to serve four-year terms) and the Chamber of Deputies or Adunarea Deputatilor (343 seats; members are elected by direct popular vote on a proportional representation basis to serve four-year terms)
    elections: Senate—last held 3 November 1996 (next to be held NA 2000); Chamber of Deputies—last held 3 November 1996 (next to be held NA 2000)
    election results: Senate—percent of vote by party—CDR 30.7%, PDSR 23.1%, USD 13.2%, UDMR 6.8%, PRM 4.5%, PUNR 4.2%, others 17.5%; seats by party—CDR 53, PDSR 41, USD 23, UDMR 11, PRM 8, PUNR 7; Chamber of Deputies—percent of vote by party—CDR 30.2%, PDSR 21.5%, USD 12.9%, UDMR 6.6% PRM 4.5%, PUNR 4.4%, others 19.9%; seats by party—CDR 122, PDSR 91, USD 53, UDMR 25, PRM 19, PUNR 18, ethnic minorities 15

    Judicial branch: Supreme Court of Justice, judges are appointed by the president on the recommendation of the Superior Council of Magistrates

    Political parties and leaders: Democratic Party or PD [Petre ROMAN]; Romanian Social Democratic Party or PSDR [Sergiu CUNESCU]; Party of Social Democracy in Romania or PDSR [Ion ILIESCU]; Democratic Union of Hungarians in Romania or UDMR [Bela MARKO]; National Liberal Party or PNL [Mircea IONESCU-QUINTUS]; National Peasants' Christian and Democratic Party or PNTCD [Ion DIACONESCU]; Romanian National Unity Party or PUNR [Valeriu TABARA]; Socialist Labor Party or PSM [Ilie VERDET]; Agrarian Democratic Party of Romania or PDAR [Mihai BERCA]; The Democratic Convention or CDR [Ion DIACONESCU]; Romania Mare Party (Greater Romanian Party) or PRM [Corneliu Vadim TUDOR]; Civic Alliance Party or PAC [Nicolae MANOLESCU, chairman]; Liberal Party '93 or PL-93 [Dinu PATRICIU]; National Liberal Party-Democratic Convention or PNL-CD [Nicolae CERVENI]; Socialist Party or PS [Tudor MOHORA]
    note: to increase their voting strength several of the above-mentioned parties united under umbrella organizations: PNTCD, PNL, and PNL-CD form the bulk of the Democratic Convention or CDR [Ion DIACONESCU]; PD and PSDR form the Union of Social Democrats or USD [Petre ROMAN]; and PAC and PL-93 form the National Liberal Alliance or ANL [Nicolae MANOLESCU]; PSM, PS, ANL, and numerous other small parties failed to gain representation in the most recent election

    Political pressure groups and leaders: various human rights and professional associations

    International organization participation: ACCT, BIS, BSEC, CCC, CE, CEI, EAPC, EBRD, ECE, EU (applicant), FAO, G- 9, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), ISO, ITU, LAIA (observer), MONUA, NAM (guest), NSG, OAS (observer), OPCW, OSCE, PCA, PFP, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNIKOM, UPU, WCL, WEU (associate partner), WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO, ZC

    Diplomatic representation in the US:
    chief of mission: Ambassador Mircea Dan GEOANA
    chancery: 1607 23rd Street NW, Washington, DC 20008
    telephone: [1] (202) 332-4846, 4848, 4851
    FAX: [1] (202) 232-4748
    consulate(s) general: Los Angeles and New York

    Diplomatic representation from the US:
    chief of mission: Ambassador James C. ROSAPEPE
    embassy: Strada Tudor Arghezi 7-9, Bucharest
    mailing address: American Embassy Bucharest, Department of State, Washington, DC 20521-5260 (pouch)
    telephone: [40] (1) 210 01 49, 210 40 42
    FAX: [40] (1) 210 03 95
    branch office: Cluj-Napoca

    Flag description: three equal vertical bands of blue (hoist side), yellow, and red; the national coat of arms that used to be centered in the yellow band has been removed; now similar to the flags of Andorra and Chad

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Revised 1-Mar-99
Copyright © 1999 Photius Coutsoukis (all rights reserved)