Sources: The Library of Congress Country Studies; CIA World Factbook
The process of democratic consolidation pursued by the Karamanlis governments during the 1970s had included among its objectives the steady improvement of relations with the Soviet Union. Several bilateral economic cooperation agreements included large and sensitive projects ranging from the construction of energy plants to arranging for the servicing of Soviet ships in Greece. Regular exchanges of top-level visits, initiated by Karamanlis, continued under the two PASOK administrations in the 1980s.
In the 1980s, Western observers and Greek opposition leaders frequently charged that PASOK's "independent and multidimensional" foreign policy gave the appearance of a pro-Soviet bias. For example, Papandreou described the United States as "the metropolis of imperialism," and in 1983 he praised Polish communist party first secretary Wojciech Jaruzelski as a patriot rather than condemning Jaruzelski's declaration of martial law in Poland.
Explaining these statements, Papandreou argued that he was trying to wean Greece from total dependence on the United States and to end "one-sided alignment with one specific bloc." Although the prime minister's comments clearly irritated Greece's American and European allies, the Greek-Soviet ties established in the 1980s survived the political upheaval that ended the Soviet Union in quite good condition. Russian president Boris N. Yeltsin made a successful visit to Athens in 1993, and in July 1994 a high-level delegation from the Greek defense ministry continued a long series of official visits to Russia.
Data as of December 1994
NOTE: The information regarding Greece on this page is re-published from The Library of Congress Country Studies and the CIA World Factbook. No claims are made regarding the accuracy of Greece Russia information contained here. All suggestions for corrections of any errors about Greece Russia should be addressed to the Library of Congress and the CIA.