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Cote d'Ivoire Early Development
Sources: The Library of Congress Country Studies; CIA World Factbook
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    Côte d'Ivoire's armed forces developed from the colonial military forces organized by France after the formal establishment of the colony in 1893. Although Côte d'Ivoire was a separate colony, France set up a regional military command structure for all of French West Africa (Afrique Occidentale Française--AOF; see Glossary). The command headquarters was located at Dakar, Senegal, and Côte d'Ivoire was integrated into a regional defense structure. Its African forces were organized into regiments of Senegalese Irregulars (Tirailleurs Sénégalaises), whose name revealed the centralized character of the colonial administration and the subordinate status of the vast expanses of the AOF beyond the Senegalese hinterland. This externalization and regionalization of Ivoirian defense persisted after independence in the form of the Council of the Entente (Conseil de l'Estente), the security of whose member states continued to be guaranteed by France.

    Between 1908 and 1912, when four-year conscription was introduced by the governor general of the AOF, the number of Africans serving in the Tirailleurs Sénégalaises grew from 13,600 to 22,600. At the outbreak of World War I in August 1914, of the nearly 31,000 black troops under French arms, about half were deployed outside of the AOF and French Equatorial Africa (Afrique Equatoriale Française--AEF), underpinning French imperialism in Morocco, Algeria, and Madagascar. During World War I, about 164,000 black soldiers were recruited in the AOF for service in Europe and elsewhere.

    In Côte d'Ivoire, pacification and conscription continued even as France was fighting for its survival. Between October 1914 and February 1916, approximately 13,500 Ivoirians were trained for military service. All told, about 20,000 Ivoirian soldiers fought for France during the war. Many others resisted recruitment, which was widely regarded as the heaviest of the colonial exactions. A major wartime revolt had to be put down by force. The colony suffered a sharp decrease in its standard of living because of the various war-related levies.

    During World War II, France again called upon its colonies to fulfill manpower levies. Before France fell in 1940, over 100,000 men had been recruited from French West Africa alone, including 30,000 from Côte d'Ivoire. After the armistice, the Vichy government increased the size of its peacetime army by recruiting an additional 50,000 Africans, while another 100,000 Africans served under the Free French between 1943 and 1945. Thus, over 200,000 Africans fought on behalf of France during the war.

    Although the Vichy government further intensified the burdens of colonialism, in the aftermath of the war the colonial regime was gradually dismantled to make way for independent nations. By 1950 the essential defense and internal security apparatus that would be bequeathed to Côte d'Ivoire after independence was in place. Defense was entrusted to a single army battalion with four companies: three were based at Bouaké, and the fourth was at Man, with an armored reconnaissance unit at Abidjan. Internal security was the responsibility of the National Security Police (Sureté Nationale). This division of the Ministry of Internal Security copied French organization and had a headquarters element, four mobile brigades, a security service, and a central, colonial police force. These units were reinforced by a local constabulary (gardes cercles) organized by the army and a local detachment of the regional gendarmerie. During the 1950s, administrative powers devolved to the colonies of the AOF. Defense and foreign affairs remained the responsibility of the colonial authorities. Even at independence in 1960, no provision was made for an Ivoirian national armed force.

    Not until after the April 1961 Franco-Ivoirian Technical Military Assistance Accord (Accord d'Assistance Militaire Technique), more than a year after independence, was a national army formed from indigenous members of the French colonial marines. These troops formed a single, undermanned battalion and used equipment donated by France. By the end of 1962, the armed forces had expanded rapidly to about 5,000 soldiers organized into four battalions. For the new military establishment, independence was more formal than functional: French influence remained paramount, delaying the emergence of an autonomous Ivoirian identity.

    Data as of November 1988

    NOTE: The information regarding Cote d'Ivoire on this page is re-published from The Library of Congress Country Studies and the CIA World Factbook. No claims are made regarding the accuracy of Cote d'Ivoire Early Development information contained here. All suggestions for corrections of any errors about Cote d'Ivoire Early Development should be addressed to the Library of Congress and the CIA.

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