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    Italy Geography 2000

      Location: Southern Europe, a peninsula extending into the central Mediterranean Sea, northeast of Tunisia

      Geographic coordinates: 42 50 N, 12 50 E

      Map references: Europe

      Area:
      total: 301,230 sq km
      land: 294,020 sq km
      water: 7,210 sq km
      note: includes Sardinia and Sicily

      Area - comparative: slightly larger than Arizona

      Land boundaries:
      total: 1,932.2 km
      border countries: Austria 430 km, France 488 km, Holy See (Vatican City) 3.2 km, San Marino 39 km, Slovenia 232 km, Switzerland 740 km

      Coastline: 7,600 km

      Maritime claims:
      continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation
      territorial sea: 12 nm

      Climate: predominantly Mediterranean; Alpine in far north; hot, dry in south

      Terrain: mostly rugged and mountainous; some plains, coastal lowlands

      Elevation extremes:
      lowest point: Mediterranean Sea 0 m
      highest point: Mont Blanc (Monte Bianco) 4,807 m

      Natural resources: mercury, potash, marble, sulfur, dwindling natural gas and crude oil reserves, fish, coal, arable land

      Land use:
      arable land: 31%
      permanent crops: 10%
      permanent pastures: 15%
      forests and woodland: 23%
      other: 21% (1993 est.)

      Irrigated land: 27,100 sq km (1993 est.)

      Natural hazards: regional risks include landslides, mudflows, avalanches, earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, flooding; land subsidence in Venice

      Environment - current issues: air pollution from industrial emissions such as sulfur dioxide; coastal and inland rivers polluted from industrial and agricultural effluents; acid rain damaging lakes; inadequate industrial waste treatment and disposal facilities

      Environment - international agreements:
      party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Sulphur 85, Air Pollution-Sulphur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling
      signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol

      Geography - note: strategic location dominating central Mediterranean as well as southern sea and air approaches to Western Europe

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    Revised 01-Nov-00
    Copyright © 2000 Photius Coutsoukis (all rights reserved)


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