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    Iran Geography 2000

      Location: Middle East, bordering the Gulf of Oman, the Persian Gulf, and the Caspian Sea, between Iraq and Pakistan

      Geographic coordinates: 32 00 N, 53 00 E

      Map references: Middle East

      Area:
      total: 1.648 million sq km
      land: 1.636 million sq km
      water: 12,000 sq km

      Area - comparative: slightly larger than Alaska

      Land boundaries:
      total: 5,440 km
      border countries: Afghanistan 936 km, Armenia 35 km, Azerbaijan-proper 432 km, Azerbaijan-Naxcivan exclave 179 km, Iraq 1,458 km, Pakistan 909 km, Turkey 499 km, Turkmenistan 992 km

      Coastline: 2,440 km
      note: Iran also borders the Caspian Sea (740 km)

      Maritime claims:
      contiguous zone: 24 nm
      continental shelf: natural prolongation
      exclusive economic zone: bilateral agreements, or median lines in the Persian Gulf
      territorial sea: 12 nm

      Climate: mostly arid or semiarid, subtropical along Caspian coast

      Terrain: rugged, mountainous rim; high, central basin with deserts, mountains; small, discontinuous plains along both coasts

      Elevation extremes:
      lowest point: Caspian Sea -28 m
      highest point: Qolleh-ye Damavand 5,671 m

      Natural resources: petroleum, natural gas, coal, chromium, copper, iron ore, lead, manganese, zinc, sulfur

      Land use:
      arable land: 10%
      permanent crops: 1%
      permanent pastures: 27%
      forests and woodland: 7%
      other: 55% (1993 est.)

      Irrigated land: 94,000 sq km (1993 est.)

      Natural hazards: periodic droughts, floods; dust storms, sandstorms; earthquakes along western border and in the northeast

      Environment - current issues: air pollution, especially in urban areas, from vehicle emissions, refinery operations, and industrial effluents; deforestation; overgrazing; desertification; oil pollution in the Persian Gulf; inadequate supplies of potable water

      Environment - international agreements:
      party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands
      signed, but not ratified: Environmental Modification, Law of the Sea, Marine Life Conservation

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    Revised 01-Nov-00
    Copyright © 2000 Photius Coutsoukis (all rights reserved)


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