Sources: The Library of Congress Country Studies; CIA World Factbook
The energy sector has exhibited significant growth in Greece. Between 1982 and 1992, total energy consumption grew from 16.1 million to 22.9 million tons of oil equivalent (Mtoe), an increase of 42 percent. Of 1992 consumption, 8.2 Mtoe came from coal, 13.8 Mtoe from oil, 0.8 from hydroelectric generation, and 0.1 Mtoe from natural gas. The country depends on imports for a significant portion of its energy. In 1992 domestic energy production amounted to 8.6 Mtoe (an increase of 54 percent over the preceding decade), whereas net imports amounted to 15.6 Mtoe.
In 1991 Greek hydroelectric stations produced slightly more than 10 percent of the power generated domestically, liquid-fuel- burning thermoelectric stations produced about 23 percent, and coal-burning thermoelectric stations produced about 66 percent. Greece has no nuclear power plants. Between 1980 and 1991, electricity production increased by 48 percent. Expansion of coalburning stations accounted for more than the net increase because production from the other two sources declined during that period. Thus, the use of domestically available coal for electricity production has been intensified over this period.
Domestic production of fuel consists mostly of coal. With known reserves of about 3 billion tons, production in 1990 amounted to 51.9 million tons, nearly double the amount in 1980. Crude petroleum is extracted in the offshore Prinos Field, near the island of Thasos in the northern Aegean Sea. Production of crude was 6.7 million barrels in 1989, down from about 9.5 million in 1985. Between 1982 and 1992, Greek oil production dropped by 33 percent, and further declines are expected because reserves are rapidly being depleted. The largest refinery is the Aspropyrgos Refinery near Athens, which has a capacity of 110,000 barrels of oil per day.
The distribution of electricity consumption among sectors of economic activity in 1992 was as follows: industrial consumption absorbed 27 percent, transportation absorbed 42 percent, and other uses such as agriculture, commerce, and municipal installations accounted for 31 percent. Classified another way, in 1990 industry used 33 percent, transportation used 30 percent, and households and commercial establishments used 37 percent. Between 1982 and 1992, industrial consumption grew by less than 5 percent, transport consumption by 49 percent.
Electricity production in Greece is the domain of the stateowned DEI. A limited amount of private electricity production is allowed, but most of the power in this category is consumed by the generating enterprise or sold to the DEI. In 1991 less than 3 percent of Greece's total electricity production of 32,786 gigawatt hours was produced outside DEI facilities. The country's power generation capacity stood at 9,446 megawatts in 1991.
The DEI is implementing a large-scale, ten-year program of investments and modernization, which is projected to cost US$5 billion. The program will involve the construction of new thermoelectric and hydroelectric capacity, the development of environment-friendly forms of energy generation such as wind and geothermal sources, extensive automation of generation and load distribution centers, and other technical improvements.
The use of natural gas is meager in Greece. A major project, long in the planning stage, is extension of a pipeline from its present terminus in Bulgaria to deliver Russian natural gas to Greece. The project will be funded by the Second Community Support Framework of the EU. The project will allow the replacement of oil currently used for power supply by many consumers. Such an adjustment will reduce environmental pollution, especially in urban areas. The main 520-kilometer pipeline will be supplemented by urban distribution networks in Thessaloniki and the Athens metropolitan area. The projected cost of this project is about US$2 billion. After years of delay, in September 1994 Greece signed new protocols with Russia for supply and with Bulgaria for pipeline construction between the Bulgarian port of Burgas and the Greek port of Alexandroupolis, on the Aegean Sea. The line is seen as a foundation of new industrial development in northern Greece.
Data as of December 1994
NOTE: The information regarding Greece on this page is re-published from The Library of Congress Country Studies and the CIA World Factbook. No claims are made regarding the accuracy of Greece Energy information contained here. All suggestions for corrections of any errors about Greece Energy should be addressed to the Library of Congress and the CIA.